THE time for us to leave Chicago has arrived. Our train of twenty-four cars, each about sixty feet in length, is made up. 

We are conducted by the porter to our car, and the train slowly moves out of the city. 

Twelve of these cars are sleeping-cars, arranged with two tiers of berths, or beds, on each side. The berths are much like those in the state-room of a steamboat, but are wider, each furnishing room for two persons instead of one as in the steamer. 

In these cars the traveler can sleep comfortably at night, and as the beds are made into seats in the day-time, he can remain in the same car to the journey's end, even if it be many hundreds of miles. 

Attached to our train is a large car, a regular dining-hall, going only fifty miles. 

Hand-bills are passed through the train, stating that passengers can buy a warm supper if they wish.

Our stay' in Chicago was so short that we could visit but few places of interest. The great slaughter-houses, where thousands of cattle, hogs, and sheep are killed every day, and shipped to all parts of the world, would have interested many; but when I thought of the numerous diseases produced by eating diseased meat, infected with trichinae, etc., I confess that I had no great desire to visit these places.

In passing from State to State we hear curious names given to places and things, and sometimes to people. As all these names originate from some fact or circumstance, it may be of interest to note them. 

We must be brief, however, as we can glean but little in our rapid trip. We are just now passing around the south end of Lake Michigan, in the State of Illinois, and we hear the expression, "Ah, this is the Sucker State." We learn that this name, not a pleasing one we confess, originated from the fact that in early times travelers, obliged to drink the surface water which had collected in holes in the ground, often sucked it through a reed or straw.

After leaving the State of Illinois we pass through the extreme northern part of Indiana, which name, as its spelling indicates, was derived from the Indians who flourished here in earlier times. Because of their fondness for rough sports the people of this State were once called hushers, or boxers, which was finally changed to "Hoosiers." The advance of civilization, however, has been as rapid in this State as in any, and the refining influence of education has done as much for it as for other States; and Indiana now furnishes as noble specimens of genius and literature as many of the older States.

We now come to the State of Michigan. 

This name is derived from two Indian words, michtaw, great, and sageigan, lake. 

It was formerly given to Lake Huron as well as to Lake Michigan, but was afterward restricted to the latter, and the country lying between them. Michigan is often called the Lake State, referring either to the great lakes, Michigan, Superior, Huron, and St. Clair, by which it is partially surrounded, or to the great number of lakes in the State, of which a recent estimate says that "Michigan contains 8,173 inland lakes," some of them very beautiful.

Tie State of Michigan, which was my home for ten years before going to the Pacific coast, now contains 1,500,000 inhabitants. It is indeed what is implied in its motto, Si quwris peninsulam amoenam, circumspice, meaning, "If thou seekest a beautiful peninsula, behold it here." Night again settles upon us, and therefore we cannot "behold" much of it now, but we know of what we affirm, having seen much of the State in the past.

It is now eleven P. M., the eleventh day from the time we left San Francisco. Cal. 

We have arrived in Battle Creek, and once more greet mother and only living brother and sister, from whom we have been separated a little more than ten years. It is good to meet again on earth, but what is this compared with the final meeting of the faithful in Heaven, when life's probationary journey shall be ended!

 J. N. L.


BATTLE CREEK is a thriving little city of about seven thousand inhabitants. It is named after the stream, Battle Creek, which forms a junction with the Kalamazoo River not far from the center of the city. The stream itself received its name from the following circumstance, which occurred in the winter of 1823-24: 

The Indians had become jealous of the encroachments of the whites on their sugarcamps, and this feeling was increased when a party of surveyors proceeded to run their lines through the maple groves. The surveyors encamped on the point of land where the Battle Creek unites with the Kalamazoo, and while the party were absent in the woods, two men who had been left at the camp were attacked by two Indians of great size and strength, evidently with the intention of securing their provisions, and thus hindering the survey. After a sharp skirmish the Indians were defeated. But the surveyors, on returning to camp, decided that it would be no longer safe for them to remain in the neighborhood, and accordingly they returned to Detroit. In the following spring the difficulty with the Indians was peaceably settled, and the surveyors resumed their work. From this skirmish, the savages gave to the stream the name Waupokisco, which is translated into English as "Battle Creek."

As we are to remain for some time in the city, we have opportunity to look about and note the progress made during my absence of more than ten years.

There are two lines of railroad running through Battle Creek: the Michigan Central, extending from Detroit to Chicago; and the Chicago and Lake Huron, designed to connect Port Huron with Chicago. [This road is now called the Northwestern Grand Trunk R. R. It has been constructed to a point within twenty-seven miles of Chicago, and will soon be finished.] At the point where these two railroads cross each other, in the eastern part of the city, is the great manufactory for the famous Nichols and Shepard Vibrator threshing machines. 

This establishment turned out last year one thousand machines. The buildings of the firm, with the houses occupied by their workmen, constitute no small part of the city of Battle Creek. The C. & L. H. railroad and this great threshing machine manufactory have both been constructed during my absence from the place.

I observe evidences of thrift all over the city. In the northern part, humble cottages have been replaced by many fine residences. No. 1, of the graded schools of Battle Creek, has changed its old-style building for an imposing, college-like edifice. On Main St. the Presbyterians and the Baptists have erected handsome church buildings, and all the old tumble-down places on the "race" and at other points have given way to large brick stores.

In the western part of the city I notice many signs of improvement. This part is to a large extent occupied by the Seventh-day Adventists. Here is their great central publishing house for the world. Ten years ago it consisted of one building, with about six thousand feet of floor room; and its business was confined to printing. Now I find one massive four story building, and beside it another building of the same size as the original structure. The floors now furnish about twenty-seven thousand feet of room. Here are carried on not only printing, but stereotyping and first-class book-binding.

Ten years ago there stood, a short distance north of the publishing house, a Health Institute, capable, with its cottages, of accommodating, some sixty patients. 

Now we see, near the same spot, the great Sanitarium, in which are accommodations for about three hundred patients. Ten years ago, a denominational school had been opened in a room some twenty feet square. This has grown to a bona fide college, with its professors and teachers. It occupies a beautiful three-story building just across the street from the Sanitarium.

With the growth of these institutions, the numbers of the S. D. A. church and congregation have increased to such an extent that the old church building, 40x65 feet, was too small for their accommodation. 

It was accordingly removed, and its place is now occupied by a Tabernacle capable of seating thirty-two hundred persons.

Truly, Battle Creek, with its fine buildings, clean streets, and abundance of shade trees, is a delightful place.

 J. N. L.

CONSCIENCE is the magnetic needle which is given to us to direct our course. Worldly wisdom, like a spy-glass, may show breakers ahead, but cannot guide across the ocean.


WE have now spent about five weeks in Michigan, among relatives and old friends. 

Before resuming our eastward journey I must say a little more about this State. Nature has done much for Michigan, making it one of the best States in the Union. Its soil, timber, water, and its adaptation to raising all the fruits, grains, and vegetables of temperate climates, render it a desirable location for rural homes.

The southern portion is dotted with small prairies, having a rich, black soil, and interspersed with what is called opening land, a sandy loam covered with young oaks. 

Next to this is a broad belt of very heavy timber, stretching across the State from northeast to southwest; then comes a strip, several miles wide, of beautiful, tall pines; then another strip of heavy timber, maple, ash, etc., then pine again, and so on up to the extreme northern border of the State.

Concerning its water advantages we have already stated that it is nearly surrounded by navigable lakes, besides containing thousands of smaller ones. In addition to these, it has its quota of rivers. In the southern part of the State are the Kalamazoo, St. Joseph, and Raisin; farther north are the Grand, Saginaw, Muskegon, and others.

In the southern part of the State, and especially on its western border, the apple, peach, plum, cherry, and other fruits, are produced in abundance. In raising wheat, corn, barley, and oats, Michigan is not inferior to any of the older States. And although it may not, like Missouri, boast of a great mountain of iron, or, like California and Nevada, of gold and silver mines, it has, nevertheless, in the northern or Superior section, some of the richest copper mines in the world; while of late years very valuable coal mines have been developed in the central portion, and in the Saginaw valley are profitable salt-works.

Though these things have not had an exciting effect upon the world at large, to draw people from all parts of the globe, as have the gold and silver mines of the Pacific slope, yet this State has presented substantial inducements to those who desire to secure a permanent home. For this reason, Michigan can, perhaps, next to Connecticut, boast of being the "land of steady habits," having to a large extent a class of residents who expect their gain in this world to be the result of care and labor. 

As a rule, the sons of toil and hardship are those who rise in the world to positions of honor and trust, and of this there are many examples in the history of Michigan. Nor have the efforts of the people been confined to securing material prosperity. Great attention has been given to the subject of education. The district schools, graded schools, and colleges of Michigan compare well with those of any other State. Hermedical College at Ann Arbor ranks among the best.

The people complain of cold winters and warm summers, the climate not beingas mild as when the original belts of timber were all standing, yet it is not unhealthful, especially for persons who are careful of their habits of life. If we violate the physical laws of our being we must expect to pay the penalty, regardless of State or climate.

J. N. L.


PARTING with our friends in Battle Creek we are again on our way toward the broad Atlantic. Among the first points of interest that attract our attention are the coalmines of Michigan, a little west of Jackson. As we look at these, we call to mind a statement made by a scientific gentleman who passed through the State some twenty-five years ago, setting forth his " infallible science of geology," as positive proof against the Bible records. In elucidating his subject he gave reasons why, "according to geology," coal would never be found in Michigan. In less than three months after he left the State large beds of coal were discovered in Jackson County. Thus his geology was proved to be not “infallible."

But on we speed, passing fertile fields, luxuriant orchards yielding their golden store, and sear-leaved forests, which show that Jack Frost has returned and begun his work. Now we have reached the river Raisin, one of the most crooked streams I ever saw. The railroad crosses this river thirteen times in three miles.

Our train makes a few minutes halt at Dearborn, the great military station of the State. When Michigan was a country of savages this was a very important point, but now only a few soldiers are stationed here, to hold the forts bordering on the British possessions. Soon after leaving Dearborn we arrive at Detroit, on the west bank of the Detroit River. Immediately opposite, on the east side of the river, is Windsor, in Canada. The Detroit River is between one-half and two-thirds of a mile wide. It is the great outlet of lakes Michigan, Superior, Huron, and St. Clair, through which their waters empty into Lake Erie.

At Detroit we reach the terminus of the Michigan Central Railroad, one hundred and twenty miles from Battle Creek. This is one of the most complete and best-conducted roads in the United States, being one of the great links in the line of travel from ocean to ocean. The Detroit River formerly made a serious break in this line. 

All passengers were obliged to leave the cars and cross the river in a ferry-boat, and then take the cars again at Windsor, on the Canada side. Now we find the cars of the "Great Western" (Canada) Railroad in the Detroit depot. We change cars, and are backed on to a huge ferry-boat, which takes the whole train over the river. On the Canada side another engine draws the train off the boat, and soon we pass on our way.

The Great Western Railway runs the whole length of the north side of Lake Erie, through what was once called "Upper Canada," afterward known as "Canada West," but now named "The Province of Ontario." This road is two hundred and thirty miles in length, and extends from Detroit River, the inlet of Lake Erie, to the Niagara River, the outlet of that lake. Near the line of this railroad is found the oil region of Canada, where no inconsiderable amount of petroleum has been obtained from the oil wells. Among the cities and villages which we pass on this line is the beautiful city of London, so named after London in England.  On this road we see much less of that spirit of hurry and bustle that is so characteristic of railroad operating in the United States. Great care is taken to guard against loss of life. The stops at the depots are longer, and the trains in starting move off more slowly. As our passage over this road is mostly in the night we must close our observations and seek rest in sleep, "Nature's sweet restorer," preparatory to an early view of the Niagara Falls and the great Suspension Bridge, which are at the terminus of this road.

J. N. L.


WHEN we retired last night our train was making steady progress through the Province of Ontario, toward Niagara Falls. As we awake this morning we find we have a few miles yet to travel before reaching the falls.

On looking out of the car window we discover a curious object at our right, which looks like a three-masted ship standing in an open field. It is a ship, all rigged complete, but the sails are furled and close lashed to the spars. On coming nearer we find it is passing through the Well and Canal. This is a ship canal constructed on the Canada side of Niagara Falls, and extending from Lake Erie to Lake Ontario. It is 28 miles in length, 45 feet wide at the bottom, 81 at the top, and 9 feet deep, of sufficient depth and width to allow quite large vessels to pass through it. These vessels are towed through the canal, either by horses or small steam-tags. This is why the sails on that vessel are "close reefed." This canal, with all its arrangements, is an object of so much interest that we will visit it before going on to the falls. At Lake Ontario the canal is 330 feet lower than it is near Lake Erie. Vessels passing up and down between these lakes make the ascent or descent by means of locks, of which there are twenty-seven on the canal. 

Let us examine a few of these before riding through them on the boat. A lock on a canal is an enclosure, built of timber or masonry, long and wide enough to receive the largest boats that navigate the canal. At each end are heavy, swinging doors, or gates, so constructed that when shut they fit close together in the center of the canal. They are made to open up stream, and so, when closed, they are held firmly by the pressure of the water above. These gates are hung to the walls of the lock by great hinges, and are moved by heavy timbers, the ends of which come out on to the land. Near the bottom of the gates are openings one foot square; these are closed by sliding valves, which are opened or shut from the shore by levers attached to the gates.

Let us now take passage on one of the boats ascending the canal. You see they keep the upper gates of the lock closed until our vessel has passed through the open gates at the lower end. These lower gates are now closed, and the valves in the gates are closed also. Here we are in the lock. 

The water under our vessel is at least twelve feet lower than the water above the upper gates. Now they open the valves in the upper gates. See how the water comes rushing in. Steadily our boat rises as the water fills up the lock, till it is even with the water above the upper gates. These are now opened, and our vessel is towed out, and into another lock. The same process is repeated, and again we rise twelve feet.

As we now understand the plan of ascending the canal, let us take this returning boat and see how they make the descent. 

The locks are full of water, just as we left them. Our boat is towed in. The upper gates of the lock are closed behind us, with valves all secure. Now the valves are opened in the gates below us, and the water rushes rapidly out of the lock. See, our boat gently settles down until the water in the lock is level with the water below. Now they open the lower gates, and our vessel is towed out, and down into another lock.

We have now seen for ourselves how vessels from the St. Lawrence River pass around Niagara Falls, so as to go even to Chicago, at the head of the great lakes. 

But we must hasten back to the railroad, and continue our journey. 

J. N. L.


HAVING again taken the cars, a few minutes' ride brings us to the great Suspension Bridge. Here we must stop and view this work of art, and also one of the great wonders of nature, the falls, two miles up the river. Even here at the bridge, we hear the loud roar of the falls, as the river pours its vast volume of water over the rocks into the abyss below.

The chasm over which the Suspension Bridge is constructed, and through which the Niagara River runs, is about eight hundred feet wide. When we think of the chain of great lakes that pour their waters through this narrow channel, we would suppose the water must be very deep. Recent sounding, and actual measurement of its depth, have proved it to be the deepest river in the world. Not far from this bridge, the water is seven hundred feet deep.

The track of the railroad bridge is two hundred and fifty feet above the water, and below this is a bridge for carriages and foot passengers. Thus we see this is really a two-story bridge. Each of these bridges is supported by two cables. Each cable is ten inches in diameter, and is composed of 3,569 No. 9 wires, so bound together as to make an exceedingly tough wire rope.

These great cables are passed over the tops of four towers, two of which are on either side of the river. These towers are constructed of huge stones, and are about eighty feet in height, sixteen feet square at the base, and eight feet square at the top. The weight of the whole structure of the bridge between the towers is about eight hundred tons, and the bridge is supposed to be capable of supporting about five hundred tons beside its own 


After passing the ends of these cables over the tops of the towers, they were carried back some sixty feet from the shore, and securely anchored thirty feet below the surface of the earth in stone mason work. 

These cables being very heavy, could not of course be drawn straight. Although they pass over towers eighty feet high, the middle of the cables sags nearly to the level of the bridge. The cross-pieces supporting the platform of the bridge, are hung to these cables by strong wire ropes, and there are six hundred and twenty-four of these suspenders. On each side of the bridge are twenty-eight strong wire rope stays, passing from near the center of the bridge to the rocks on either side of the river, where they are firmly secured. These stays keep the bridge from swinging sidewise. In making the cables, suspenders, and stays to the bridge, the architect claimed that he used four thousand miles of No. 9 wire.

The first time that I crossed this bridge was over twenty years ago, some two weeks after the lower, or carriage, bridge was completed. 

Ten of us went over in an omnibus, and more fear was manifested than we now see when a train of cars with three hundred passengers is passing over the upper bridge. 

It looks strange indeed to stand upon the shore and see a whole train of cars hung up at so giddy a height. Having safely passed over and viewed the bridge, we will look at the falls from the American side before resuming our journey.

J. N. L.


LEAVING Suspension Bridge, we walk up to the falls, a distance of two miles, on our way catching occasional glimpses of the river deep down in its channel. Having gone about two-thirds of the distance, we come to "the place where Blondin walked." 

Nearly twenty years ago, while the Prince of Wales was making a visit to the falls, Blondin, a tight-rope performer, took advantage of the occasion to get notoriety by walking a tight rope in the presence of the prince and the thousands who had assembled with him. A rope was stretched across the river from bank to bank, over two hundred feet above the water.

After he had walked across once, he returned, bearing a small cooking furnace. 

When about half-way back he sat down upon the rope, and at this giddy height balanced himself and his furnace, while he kindled a fire, cooked some eggs, and let them down by a cord to a little steamer, called "Maid of the Mist," which was immediately below.

Going to the shore with his cooking utensils, he next tried walking across perched upon stilts. In the bottom of the stilts he had driven spikes to prevent their slipping off the rope. In this walk he succeeded very well until about half-way across, when, undertaking to jump up from the rope and onto it again, he fell; but fortunately he saved himself from destruction by falling astride the rope. 

Here he balanced himself, and, regaining his standing on the rope, completed his third trip, the crowd cheering him lustily for his fool-hardy exploits.

What a striking proof of the depraved tastes of mankind is the fact that they take pleasure in seeing how near they can expose themselves to destruction and yet escape with their lives. For ourselves we take more pleasure in viewing the beautiful and wonderful in nature and art.

We pass on a few rods and come to the falls of Niagara, where, for thousands of years, with almost deafening roar, the waters of this mighty cataract have been pouring into the vast abyss below. To gain a nearer view, we go down several hundred steps to the water's edge, where a foot path has been constructed out onto a huge pile of rocks, which at some time have fallen from the cliffs above. Here we find a constant mist, caused by the spray from the descending waters. Raising an umbrella to prevent getting wet in this mystic shower, we succeed in holding our position until the sun shines out brightly, when,! The mist and spray are suddenly ornamented with a most gorgeously resplendent rainbow.

How awe-inspiring is the scene before us! As we look up two hundred feet on either side of the river, we see bare rocks hanging over us, while about thirty feet before us is this massive sheet of water, 1,100 feet wide, pouring down nearly 200 feet into the unfathomable waters below. 

This, with the over-arching rainbow and the spray and flying drops glistening like pearls and diamonds under the rays of the golden sun, gives a combination of nature that to be enjoyed must be seen.

As we see this rainbow (God's appointed sign that he will not again deluge the world), so near this roaring cataract, it is no great stretch of the imagination to call to mind the surging of the waters in the flood, when rivers left their channels, fountains of the mighty deep were broken up, and roaring cataracts rushed in mad array to the destruction of sinful man.

This mighty river has undoubtedly poured its waters over these rocks with the same doleful and yet majestic roar for more than four thousand years. Yea, ever since the time when it served as a channel through which the retiring waters of the flood revealed to sight "what desolations'' the Lord had made in this part of the earth. 

With these thoughts we feel with weight the words of another: "How dreadful is this place; for God is here. His name is graven on the eternal rocks, with iron pen, and diamond point."But we must now retrace our steps to the bank, take our lunch, and view the falls from another point.

J. N. L.


LOOKING at the falls of Niagara from above, we see that it is broken by projecting rocks into two parts. On the American side, about one-third of the entire width is separated from the rest by a strip of rocks running down from Goat Island. 

This island lies lengthwise of the river, just above the falls, and is more than a mile in length. If you look at the picture of Suspension Bridge, you will see the falls above the bridge, and also the division of the water by these rocks.

Just to the right of this island, on another projecting rock, there stood, for many years, a high tower with winding stairs to the top. You will also notice this in the picture. Thousands of people used to visit the tower every year, and, climbing its stairway, view this roaring cataract from that giddy height. This tower, however, became unsafe, and during the last year was torn away.

The falls on the Canada side are called the "Horseshoe Falls" because rocks have broken off from the center of the falls, until the shape of the sheet of water is much like that of a horseshoe.

At one time, a large flat rock projecting over the edge of the falls, called "table rock," was one of the curiosities of Niagara. Below this rock, and by the side of it, the rocks had so crumbled away that there was quite a space between the sheet of falling water and the rocks behind it. A narrow pathway was cut into these rocks, a hand railing secured to them, and any who saw fit to do so could put on a suit of rubber clothes and take quite a walk under the falls, behind this sheet of water. Finally, so many had ventured to go to these places, both above and below the rock, that it was considered quite safe to do so, and thousands visited them yearly.

The Scriptures inform us that a "continual dropping weareth away stones;" so in this case, a continual washing of these great waters finally spoiled this place of adventure. One day a party as careless and unconcerned, as jolly and gay as thousands before them, went out on this rock; but scarcely had they returned to the shore, when, looking back, they saw the rock trembling, and in a moment more a large portion of it had left the ledge above, and "with a shock of an earthquake," plunged down, down into the unfathomable depths below. Thus suddenly "table rock" disappeared. This company had a most impressive object lesson, forcibly reminding them of the insecurity of all things earthly, and of the words of David: "There is but a step between me and death."

At a point not a great distance from these falls on the American side is Fort Niagara, which, in the war of 1760 between Great Britain and the French, was captured by the British. During the war of 1812-1815, between the United States and Great Britain the former made every endeavor to obtain this fort, as it was the only place for troops to pass between Lake Erie and Lake Ontario. They were repulsed three times, but finally succeeded in taking and retaining it.

We will now pass on to get a nearer view of Niagara River rapids. 

J. N. L.


STANDING by the falls of Niagara on the American side, we notice that the waters of the river just below the falls are as smooth and placid as those of a small inland lake, so much so that we see men in small skiffs fishing with hook and line and passing within a few rods of the side of water. Objects in the river, as bits of wood or bark, are moving slowly toward the falls instead of down the stream. This indicates that the vast body of water pouring over the falls goes down to a great depth, and we have still further proof of this as we pass on to a point below the Suspension Bridge where the water first begins to come to the surface.

If you will again look at the picture of the bridge, you will see that the water appears smooth until we get to this point below the bridge. 

You will also see that in the edge of the picture nearest to us, the water looks very rough. This is where the water comes up boiling, seething, and foaming to the surface. As far as the eye can reach, the water thunders down in heaving masses of foam, throwing up streams of water covered with spray, and in places whirling it up into angry billows twenty or thirty feet above the heads of the spectators standing on the shore. It is deafening in its roar, and here at the rapids, even more than at the brink of the falls, can we have a realization of the terrific force of Niagara.

Having tarried so long near this river we now resume our journey. We have here been impressed with the majesty and greatness of God's wonders in the earth, and have admired the skill of man in seeking out such inventions as this ponderous bridge, which we now leave.

A short ride of an hour by rail brings us to Buffalo, which is the eastern point of commerce on Lake Erie. For many years, before the railroads to the West were constructed, this was a point from which more ships set sail than from any other internal harbor in the United States, being the port from which embarked most of the passengers for the "great lakes" and the then "far West."

Before continuing our direct journey to the Atlantic Ocean, our duties call us to visit Hornellsville, over one hundred miles south of Buffalo, after which we will return to this point to resume our eastward journey.

 J. N. L.


COMPLETING our visit in Southern New York, we return to Buffalo to resume our eastward journey. We congratulate ourselves upon the facilities of travel today as compared with former times. Fifty years ago this trip to the Atlantic, some five hundred miles, was by stage-coaches to Albany or Troy, and from thence in vessels down the Hudson River to New York. 

Then, the journey required five or ten days of constant riding and shaking about in the coach, with little chance for rest. Sometimes all the male passengers were required to get out and help pry the stagecoach out of mud-holes. The passengers termed it, "Getting a ride by working your way.”

When the Erie Canal was constructed, it was considered a great improvement on the stagecoach; and although it is still of great value as a means of conveyingfreight, for passengers it has had to give way to the New York Central Railway, with its four lines of track side by side across the entire State. On this road, with a running speed of forty to fifty miles per hour,persons can take a sleeping-coach at night in Buffalo, and wake up the next morning in New York City. While thus musing, we have come seventy-five miles on our way. Looking out of the window, we see the city of Rochester spread out before us. It is situated on the Genesee River, at the Upper Genesee Falls, about ten miles from the mouth of the river. We will stop over one train to look about a little before resuming our journey. The Genesee Falls are nearly three hundred feet broad, and the leap of the waters is about seventy-five feet. 

About one mile down the river is another fall of fifty feet, called the "Lower Falls of Genesee." These falls furnish excellent water-power for mills and machine-shops. 

They were, in fact, the cause of so great a city being built at this point.

There stands, on the west side of the upper fall, a cotton factory. Some time since, one of the spinners, Sam Patch, being weary of life, thought to end his days by jumping off the rocks over these falls. 

He was a drunken, worthless fellow; but, strange to tell, instead of taking his life he came out unharmed. He gained so much notoriety by this performance that he tried it again, at a set time, before thousands of spectators. Maintaining an erect posture, he went straight down into the water and came to the surface much as a stick would pop out of the water on being thrown in endwise. He gained so much fame from this second feat, that he tried it a third time with a greatly increased concourse of people. 

He now erected a scaffold, higher than the falls, so as to make his leap about one hundred feet. Flushed with former success, he indulged quite freely in drink. In this drunken condition, he jumped, but instead of maintaining his erect position as before, he struck flat upon the water, killing him instantly; and so ended the days of this fool-hardy man. It was some time after that his body was found and interred.

J. N. L


WE now resume our journey, and do not again halt till we arrive at Palmyra. This flourishing little city, which has the benefit of both the canal and the railroad, is a point of some note. Seven miles from Palmyra, on the left-hand side of the stage road to Canandaigua, is the hill where Joseph Smith, the founder of the sect known as Mormons, while digging for hidden treasures, claimed that he dug up some gold plates on which were ancient records and teachings of the ten tribes of Israel. It seems, however, that with the exception of teaching concerning baptism, the writings were exactly like those of a romance written by one Spalding. His manuscript was left in a printing-office to which Sidney Rigdon, an accomplice of the said Smith, had access. 

Candid citizens of Palmyra seriously doubted the story of the gold plates. As to the hole itself, some twenty-eight years ago we examined it, and saw nothing very mysterious about it.

Seven miles from Palmyra in a more westerly direction is the town of Hydesville, the former residence of the Fox family. It was at their house, March 25, 1848, that the modern spirit rappings commenced. 

In the humble village of Victor, about sixteen miles south-west of Palmyra, is the birth place of the writer.

On we glide, passing the foot of Cayuga Lake on our right, and the blue Oneida on the left. As we hear the names, Cayuga, Oneida, and Onondaga, we think of the tribes of Indians whose canoes once glided undisturbed over the waters of these lakes which still bear their names.

But what is this at our left? It looks much like a city of huts some six feet high. 

Oh! We are nearing Syracuse, and our imaginary city is the Salina salt-works near Lake Onondaga. The waters of this lake are fresh, but by boring around it, salt water flows up in great abundance. The huts we saw are covers to vats in which the waters are dried down to salt.

Leaving Syracuse, we soon pass Rome and Utica on our way down the fertile and beautiful valley of the Mohawk to Troy. 

Here our train is passed over the Hudson River, and a short ride takes us out of the "Empire State" into Massachusetts. For many years the mountain ranges of western Massachusetts have been an obstacle in the line of railroad travel from Troy to Boston. Trains have been obliged to slowly climb one side of the mountains, and as slowly descend on the other side. Some forty years ago a project was started for tunneling the mountains. Amid many difficulties and hindrances, this work has gone forward until Hoosac Tunnel, more than four miles in length, is completed. 

Now we are in the tunnel rocks beneath us, rocks at our sides, and mountains hundreds of feet above us. Occasionally there is a shaft or opening to the top of the mountain for escape of smoke and steam. 

As for seeing, a tunnel is a place of darkness, and not much seeing to be done, except by aid of lights on our train.

After passing through this tunnel, a few hours' ride brings us to the city of Boston. 

Here, sea breezes again greet us, and we look out upon the broad expanse of the Atlantic. We have crossed the Continent of America. We are about 3,400 miles from San Francisco. Our journey "from sea to sea" is ended. As we stop in this vicinity a few days before crossing the Atlantic Ocean, we will, in our next, make notes of some points of interest on the Atlantic coast. 

J. N. L.