THE people of Israel mourned because the Lord was not with them.

"And Samuel spake unto all the house of Israel, saying, If ye do return unto the Lord with all your hearts, then put away the strange gods and Ashtaroth from among you, and prepare your hearts unto the Lord, and serve him only; and he will deliver you out of the hand of the Philistines. Then the children of Israel did put away Baalim and Ashtaroth, and served the Lord only. And Samuel said, Gather all Israel to Mizpeh, and I will pray for you unto the Lord."

Then the people gathered together, and fasted, and said, "We have sinned against the Lord." 

When the Philistines heard that the Israelites had gathered together at Mizpeh, they came up against them. Then the people were afraid, and said to Samuel, "Cease not to cry unto the Lord our God for us, that he will save us out of the hand of the Philistines."

Then Samuel took a sucking lamb, and offered it for a burnt offering, and cried unto the Lord for Israel; and the Lord heard him. "And as Samuel was offering up the burnt offering, the Philistines drew near to battle against Israel; but the Lord thundered with a great thunder on that day upon the Philistines, and discomfited them; and they were smitten before Israel. 

And the men of Israel went out to Mizpeh, and pursued the Philistines, and smote them, until they came unto Beth-car."

"So the Philistines were subdued, and they came no more into the coast of Israel; and the hand of the Lord was against the Philistines all the days of Samuel."

"And Samuel judged Israel all the days of his life." His home was at Ramah, but every year he went through the land from city to city to judge the people, that is, to settle disputes and to decide what was right in difficult cases.