FAR away over the broad Atlantic, and in the extreme eastern portion of the great Mediterranean Sea, within a day's sail of the Holy Land, lies the celebrated and historic island of Cyprus. This well-known sea-girt spot of land is 140 miles long, and varies in width from five to fifty miles. It lies east and west, and contains about 4500 square miles, being by comparison about as large as the State of Connecticut. The present population is upwards of one hundred thousand, and is composed of Greeks, Turks, Armenians, and Jews, with a liberal sprinkling of other nationalities. But under the prosperous rule of the Venetians, in the sixteenth century, its population was about one million.  As a country, Cyprus is traversed by an extensive mountain range, near the center of which is a celebrated peak called Mount Olympus, which is upwards of 7000 feet high. From its summit may be seen the entire island; also the beautiful hills of Lebanon in Palestine, and the Taurus Mountains in Asia Minor. There are several other peaks of lesser altitude, upon one of which, Mount Croce, anciently stood a heathen temple dedicated to Jupiter. This temple was in ruins in the fourth century, when the Empress Helen, mother of Constantine the Great, visited it, and caused to be erected on the mount a Christian chapel, in which, if we may credit tradition, she deposited a piece of the holy cross of our Saviour.

Cyprus was famous in antiquity for its uncommon fertility, and for its remarkably mild climate. At present it is noted for its silks, fruits, flowers, and wines, its natural productions being of the richest character. 

It has been several times visited with severe earthquakes, and is occasionally subject to the desolating ravages of locusts.  The oldest history of Cyprus is somewhat involved in obscurity, yet it occupies a prominent place in both sacred and profane writings. It has been successively controlled by the Phoenicians, Egyptians, Assyrians, Persians, Greeks, Romans, Arabians, Crusaders, English, Venetians, Turks, and now again, within a few month?, amid the complications of the Eastern Question, it has reverted back to the British power, having been out of its control since the beginning of the twelfth century. The barbarism and tyranny of Turkish rulers have greatly interfered with the splendor and worldwide celebrity, which Cyprus enjoyed under its Venetian masters; but travelers and authors generally agree in saying that under a proper government it is one of the most delightful countries on the globe.

Among the mineral products of Cyprus may be mentioned silver, diamonds, emeralds, precious stones, alum, and asbestos; besides iron, lead, and zinc, and above all, an almost unlimited supply of superior copper, called the CBS Cyprium. 

Our word copper, is from the Latin, Cyprium, which means Cyprus.  It is said that Alexander the Great had a copper, or bronze, sword, given him by one of the kings of Cyprus, which, was much praised for its lightness, as well as for its good quality. Pliny, the Roman naturalist, ascribes the discovery of brass to the ingenious metalworkers of Cyprus. It appears also from modern excavations and researches, among the ruins of this island, that the Cypriotes were as clever in the arts of pottery and sculpture, in clay or terracotta, as in the manipulation of metals. Cyprus was also especially celebrated for its ligneous productions. Some affirm that its cedars surpassed even those of Lebanon. 

It was the boast of its ancient inhabitants that they could create a fleet of ships without any recourse to foreign countries. It was in consequence of its large forest supplies that the Egyptian monarchs conquered the island, in order to get timber to create navies. It is recorded of Demetrius Poliorcites, the noted admiral in the days of the Ptolemies, that he had a war galley built of cedar wood, in Cyprus, one hundred and thirty feet long. Cyprus, also, was noted for its having thirty seaports, which made a convenient rendezvous for the numerous Egyptian war ships. 

G. W. A.

 CYPRUS is specially famous for a species of cypress tree, which it is supposed derived 
its name from the island. This tree is possessed of such balsamic properties that anciently physicians used to send their patients to reside in the vicinity of these trees for their health. The wood of the cypress is almost imperishable, having been known to last for thousands of years. One species, mentioned in the Bible, is called gopher wood.
The language of Cyprus, in historic times, was Greek. Here the philosopher Zeno was born, in the ancient city of Cilium; and here also Solon the Wise passed the latter part of his life, and died.
In the southern part of the island is a headland, or promontory, called Cape Gatto, doubtless from the Italian word gatto, which in that language signifies "cat." 
The living author, Di Cesnola, says that a certain species of cats are imported from Constantinople to kill the serpents, which abound in the neighborhood of the cape. At the tolling of a particular bell in the convent, the cats all gather in to be fed, and after having finished their meal they return again to pursue their work of destruction.
Cyprus is especially rich in antiquities and ruins, many of them being quite classic in character. Gen. Di Cesnola, the American consul to Cyprus by President Lincoln's 
appointment, spent ten years on the island in making researches and excavations. In that time, in addition to his regular official duties, he discovered and explored fifteen ancient heathen temples, some sixty-five cemeteries, containing over sixty thousand tombs, and six ancient aqueducts, in various portions of the island.  He discovered over thirty-five thousand different objects in the way of busts, statues, vases, bottles, bas-reliefs, cylinders, lamps, coins, gems, bracelets, necklaces, rings, etc., etc. These were in terra-cotta, marble, bone, alabaster, crystal, ivory, lead, copper, bronze, silver, and gold. Many of them had ancient inscriptions in the Phoenician, Assyrian, Cypriote, and Greek languages. Most of these have been deciphered by the learned. The whole collection is now in the great Metropolitan Museum, of New York City. It is interesting to add that this indefatigable worker has written a large volume on "Cyprus, its Cities, Tombs, and Temples."
It is the opinion of the learned that Cyprus is the country, which is so frequently referred to in the Old Testament under the names of Kittim and Chittim; and some think that the name Caphtor has reference to this island. It is more than probable that it is, as Mr. Kitto says, at least included in the two former terms.
In the New Testament, the first mention of Cyprus is in Acts 4:36, where it is mentioned as the native place of the Apostle Barnabas. In Acts11:19, it appears prominent in connection with the first spread of Christianity, which resulted from the scattering of the disciples at the death of Stephen. When Paul was sent out with Barnabas on a missionary tour, Cyprus was their first field of labor. Acts 13:4. It was on this island that the sorcerer, Elymas, withstood Paul, and was struck with blindness when the deputy, or pro-consul of the isle, was converted. Verses 11,12. Here Barnabas and his relative, Mark, made another preaching tour. Acts 15:39. The other New Testament allusions are mostly geographical.
May we not expect that the glorious doctrine of the coming reign will yet be proclaimed in the cities and towns of the isle of Cyprus? 

G. W. A.