THE English crown jewels are called the Regalia. They are valued at three million pounds, and are kept in the Tower of London.

The first kind of crown worn by kings was the diadem a simple fillet of silk. Constantine the Great first used a diadem of pearls and rich stones, and soon after a hoop was added over the head, which made it more like the modern crown. The first crown, properly so-called, is that which appears upon a coin of AEdrid, son of Edward the Elder, about 949. 

At the time of Edward the Confessor, the crown was kept steady on the head by an ansula, or clasp, fastened under the chin, of which the two ends hang down on coins like lappets. From the time of Edward the Confessor all the English kings were crowned at Westminster Abbey, except Henry III. and Edward V., and there the Regalia were formerly kept, in an arched room in the cloisters, in an iron chest.

The state crown of Queen Victoria was made for her coronation with jewels taken from old crowns. It is composed of pearls, sapphires, emeralds and diamonds. In the center of a diamond Maltese cross, is the famous ruby, said to have been given to the Black Prince by the king of Castile in 1367. It was worn by Henry. in his helmet at the battle of Agincourt in 1415. The famous Koh-i-noor diamond is exhibited with the Regalia, set as a bracelet. Its history is said to be "one long romance," but well authenticated at every step. History says that it came into the Delhi treasury in 1304. It was called, in Eastern phrase, the Mountain of Light. After the capture of Lahore, it was presented by Lord Dalhouse, in the name of the East India Company, to the Queen, in 1850. The Brahmin sages have a hereditary belief that this stone possesses malign powers.

The Prince of Wales' crown is of pure gold, without jewels. The Queen Consort's crown is of gold set with precious stones. The Queen's diadem is a circlet of gold made for the coronation of the consort of James II., at a cost of 110,000 pounds.  St. Edward's staff of beaten gold, four feet seven inches in length, is called, in an account of the coronation of the wife of Henry III (1236), "a jewel of the king's treasury of great antiquity."

The Royal Scepter, the Rod of Equity (of gold, three feet seven inches long), an ancient scepter found in the wainscot of the old jewel-house in 1814; a scepter of gold ornamented with large diamonds; one of ivory, mounted in gold, cross, and dove of white onyx, form a part of this wonderful Regalia.

The Orb is of gold, six inches in diameter, with bands set with diamonds and pearls; the gold cross is supported by an immense amethyst. 

The globe and cross, as a symbol of dominion, is very common on the imperial coins. The use of it in Eng- land dates as far back as King Alfred.

The Sword of Justice is borne before the sovereigns at coronations. 

The Coronation Bracelets and Royal Spurs are of gold, and are used at coronations. The ampulla, or eagle of gold, is used at coronations for the holy oil, which is poured from the beak into the gold anointing spoon. 

This ampulla is said to have been brought from France by Thomas a Becket. The spoon is supposed to have been used in the coronation of English monarchs since the twelfth century. It is of pure gold, with four pearls in the broadest part of the handle.

The gold saltcellar of state is set with jewels, in the form of a round castle. The tops of the five turrets are for the salt. It was presented to the crown by the city of Exeter.

Added to these there is a baptismal font, formerly used at the christening of the royal family; a large silver wine fountain presented by Plymouth to Charles II; sacramental plate, golden salt-cellars, coronation tankards, gold spoons, and a splendid banqueting dish.