FOR years no one had ever supposed that a lump of coal, dug from its bed in the earth, possessed any other property than that of fuel. Chemical analysis, however, proved it to be largely made up of hydrogen, and that it would afford a gas which was combustible. In process of time, mechanical and chemical ingenuity devised a mode of manufacturing this gas, and of applying it to the lighting of buildings and cities. In doing this, other products of distillation were developed until, step by step, the following ingredients are extracted from it: 

An excellent oil to supply lighthouses, equal to, the best sperm oil, and at lower cost. Benzole, a light sort of ethereal fluid, which evaporates easily, and, combined with vapor or moist air, is used for the purpose of portable gas lamps, so called. 

Naphtha, a heavy fluid, useful to dissolve gutta-percha and India rubber. 

Asphaltum, which is a black, solid substance, used in making varnishes and covering roofs.

Paraffine, a white crystalline substance resembling white wax, which can be made into beautiful wax candles. It is melted at a temperature of 110° F., and affords an excellent light.